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Perl Language Basics

Variables

Languages Focus

A variable holds a value that you can use and change throughout your code so long as the variable is within scope. With variable declaration, you not only want to know the syntax of how you declare a variable but you also want to know where. Are you allowed to declare a variable inline? What are the available scopes: local vs. global. Can you assign a value at the same time you declare a variable?

Perl:   $x = 0;

Perl is a loosely typed language with only three types of variables: scalars, arrays, and hashes. Use $ for a scalar variable, @ for an array, or % for a hash (an associative array).

The scalar variable type is used for any type of simple data such as strings, integers, and numbers. In Perl, you identify and use a variable with a $ even within strings.

Syntax Example:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl -w
 
print("Content-type: text/html\n\n");

$fullname = 'Mike Prestwood';
$Age = 38;
$Weight = 162.4;
 

print "Your name is $fullname.
";
print "You are $Age and weigh $Weight.
";

Note: In PHP, you declare constants similar to how you  declare variables except you drop  the $.

Complete Example

Here is a complete example that demonstrates a few concepts (refer to comments in code):

#!/usr/local/bin/perl -w
print("Content-type: text/html\n\n");
print("");
print("");
print("");

#
#Variable are case sensitive.
#
$fullname = 'Mike Prestwood';
$FullName = 'Wes Peterson';

print "Perl vars are case sensitive: " + $FullName + "
";

$Age = 38;
$Weight = 162.4;

print "Your name is $fullname.
";
print "You are $Age and weigh $Weight.
";

#
#Now using quotes.
#
$fname = "Mike";
$lname = "Prestwood";

$fullname = $fname . $lname;

print $fullname . '
';

#
#Two literals too:
#
print "My name is " . "Mike.
";

#
#Long strings.
#
$MyMsg = "This is a long string and
unlike some other languages. PHP allows
you to put strings on multiple lines 
like this.";

print $MyMsg;

print("");

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